The short answer is that it depends. First of all, background refresh for the app must be turned on in the system settings.
Apple gives little insight into how much time the app are allowed to run in the background before it is scheduled to execute less frequently or is suspended. This seems to vary across iOS versions.
We currently see 25% of all data sent in to us is send in from "the background" on iOS vs 60% on Android.
This is something that we are trying to improve on, so over the summer and fall we will work to improve the total time a sync takes and also wake up the app from our cloud periodically to start a background sync process.
Lastly, towards the end of the year we are also coming out with a ethernet-connected Hub / gateway so that data will always be available with down to 5 minutes sampling intervals.